Santos coal seam gas project contaminates aquifer

If you were unable to attend and would like to make a donation, please click on Donation on right hand corner. Click the image to see the La Voz edition in pdf. The Montopolis community held numerous meetings to discuss the concerns, issues and recommendations of the residents. The 28 acres has wetlands, natural springs, huge trees, plants and is home to wildlife deer, foxes, birds etc. This site needs to become a Preserve and not home to disc golf. Stop the displacement of our wildlife and the destruction of our natural resources. For numerous years the East Austin community has taken on the burden of desegregation. Our children have been burden with being bused across town and away from their communities.

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How Old is our Groundwater? Groundwater Ages Groundwater can either be very young, representing recent recharge to the subsurface, or it can exist as very old water that has been interacting with the rock and sediments that host it. For example, a shallow flow system would constitute recharge in a small upland area followed by discharge to an immediately adjacent low-lying area. The distance of groundwater travel may be on the order of ‘s of metres. In contrast, groundwater flow in deeper regional flow systems can travel several ‘s to 1, ‘s of kilometres.

A classic example of a deep regional flow system in Alberta is the general flow of groundwater from the recharge area in the western part of the province near the Rocky Mountain cordilleran and foothills region eastward across the plains areas towards the province of Saskatchewan see chart – right.

Provides advice and information to the Australian, State and Territory Governments, natural resource authorities and the community on a variety of groundwater resource issues.

Groundwater Age-Dating for Water Resource Characterization Background The increasing national and international demand for water has led to increasing reliance on subsurface storage, both for naturally and artificially recharged water. This increased reliance on the groundwater in concert with the strict regulation on water quality has led to a need by water managers and regulators to understand: How much and on what time scales groundwater can be recharged and withdrawn in specific sub-basins, Groundwater flow fields at both recharge and basin scales, Water quality impacts of recharge water storage and recovery in a subsurface that is bio-geochemically active, How changes in management practices have and will affect water quality, and Future distributions of contaminants in the subsurface.

Characterization of mean groundwater age and recharge temperature through the use of noble gas techniques provides information that is relevant to answering these questions and that is not accessible through traditional hydrogeologic approaches. Description LLNL has developed a noble gas mass spectrometry facility that houses a state-of-the-art water-gas separation manifold and mass spectrometry system designed specifically for high throughput of groundwater samples.

This system represents a capability for characterizing groundwater recharge conditions by dissolved gas analysis that is unmatched by any other laboratory. Construction of this facility was funded by LLNL.

Groundwater Resources

THE Supreme Court has initiated suo motu proceedings regarding the excessive and unregulated extraction of groundwater by bottling companies. To be fair, the court is driven by a genuine desire to conserve our aquifers but because judges are not perceived as well suited to handling questions of policy, the focus thus far has been on short-term fixes only. A proper resolution of the issue requires us to address the structural problem first. Groundwater is a scarce resource and every time a state is confronted with conditions of scarcity, it must undertake the process of resource allocation.

This effectively means that when there are multiple people with competing claims over the same resources, society must devise a mechanism to determine how those limited resources are to be distributed amongst the claimants and which claim is to be prioritised over the other.

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In the southern half of Australia, recent droughts and predictions of a drier future under a number of climate change scenarios have led to the search for innovative strategies to identify more secure water supplies for regional communities and industries, while also delivering environmental benefits to threatened river systems. These issues are of particular concern in the Murray-Darling Basin, where the recent Millennium Drought late ‘s – adversely affected many communities, industries and the environment.

Beginning in , the BHMAR has become the largest hydrogeological investigation project undertaken by the Australian Government in the past 30 years, and has delivered outcomes that could herald a new approach to water security in Australia by using aquifers during drought periods to reduce our dependence on surface water. Investigations to secure Broken Hill’s water supply have identified a priority site Jimargil that could provide enhanced drought security for Broken Hill.

There are a number of groundwater-related options at this site, all of which take a conjunctive approach to water management by combining the continued use of surface water when abundant, with groundwater extraction during drought conditions. Overall, the conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater involving managed aquifer recharge MAR options at the Jimargil site would provide the greatest drought security for Broken Hill. A shift to a reliance on groundwater-related options during drought would provide significant water quality benefits for the Darling River system and water supplies for Broken Hill and Menindee during drought periods, while enabling changes to the Menindee Lakes Storage that would provide substantial water savings.

How Does Carbon Dating Work

Red horse head, below and to the left of the yellow horse heads. These horse heads and signs are in a small alcove, above a flat floor. Just a few lines have been used to outline more clearly the shape of a small mammoth, about 20 cm wide, taken up by the flowstone or stalagmite cascade at the entrance to the Brunel Chamber.

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Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, By contrast, the volume of surface water in lakes, rivers, reservoirs and swamps could be contained in a depth of about one quarter of a metre. It is extremely difficult to estimate the volume of groundwater on the entire planet. However, all the estimates imply that if we do not include the water frozen in ice caps, glaciers and permanent snow, groundwater makes up almost the entire volume of the earth’s usable fresh water.

Adapted from Figure 2, Freshwater Series No. A-2, Water – Here, There and Everywhere. The illustration shows that the world’s water supply consists of 2. The world’s supply of fresh water is made up of lakes, rivers, etc. Yet, this supply is often not easily accessible, and it may be difficult and expensive to develop these water supplies in some regions. The quality of the groundwater source is also a significant determining factor when identifying its use.

Water sources: groundwater

Surface contamination[ edit ] Surface contamination may either be fixed or “free”. In the case of fixed contamination, the radioactive material cannot by definition be spread, but its radiation is still measurable. In the case of free contamination there is the hazard of contamination spread to other surfaces such as skin or clothing, or entrainment in the air. A concrete surface contaminated by radioactivity can be shaved to a specific depth , removing the contaminated material for disposal.

For occupational workers controlled areas are established where there may be a contamination hazard.

This is the latest edition of the authoritative hydrogeology text Groundwater and Wells. The previous edition (2nd), edited by Fletcher Driscoll, was published in and went through numerous printings.

Down to Earth Surface conditions of the planets Venus and Mars are compared with those of Earth, and scenes of Earth’s living landscapes lead into a discussion of how unique Earth truly is. Major topics addressed in the series, including plate tectonics, natural resources, seismology, and erosion, are introduced in this program. However, this notion changed dramatically over time, especially after the invention of the telescope. This program traces the development of astronomical theory with discussions of the discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton.

Unique characteristics of Earth are also discussed. This program introduces the topic of geophysics, exploring methods of studying what lies beneath Earth’s surface. Geophysicists use seismic wave studies, variations in temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, and computer simulations to create models of deep structures. The Sea Floor The mysteries of the ocean floor lie hidden under enormous pressure and total darkness.

This program looks at the research submersibles and indirect methods used to study the bottom of the sea, providing a glimpse of volcanic activity, formations such as the continental shelf and mid-ocean ridges, and life forms that thrive at extreme depths.

Perth’s unluckiest property? South Perth ‘coffin’ now a watery grave

Water Dating Course Drinking Water Security Water age dating is a simple way to test the security of groundwater aquifers, by establishing how long the water has been underground, i. Deeper groundwater sources can overcome the most common problems that arise from microbiological contamination of surface waters, shallow groundwaters and spring water. Not directly affected by surface or climate influences Abstracted from a bore head that provides satisfactory sanitary protection Age dating yields an average age of the water as most groundwaters are mixtures of water with different ages.

The important question is:

Hydrologic sciences: Hydrologic sciences, the fields of study concerned with the waters of Earth. Included are the sciences of hydrology, oceanography, limnology, and glaciology. In its widest sense, hydrology encompasses the study of the occurrence, movement, and physical and chemical characteristics of water in all.

It is the first confirmation of aquifer contamination associated with coal seam gas activity in Australia – a blow to an industry pushing state and federal governments for permission to expand. Grazier and protester Ted Borowski lies in a dry creek bed ready to disrupt drilling operations in the Pilliga forest by locking himself to a truck. Two days later, Deputy Premier Andrew Stoner signed a memorandum of understanding with Santos to speed up the project, in the Pilliga forest near Narrabri, guaranteeing a decision on its future by January 23 next year.

Related Articles Santos coal seam gas project contaminating aquifer in use after two years The EPA says it launched an investigation after routine testing in March last year by Santos of groundwater around the project – which remains in the test well stage – detected ”elevated levels of total dissolved solids and slightly elevated levels of other elements”. The investigation concluded there was no evidence contractors engaged by the previous owner of the project, Eastern Star Gas, followed strict rules when building a pond to hold waste water and brine produced when gas is extracted.

The investigation concluded the pond liner was of ”poor quality, which resulted in the integrity of the liner being questionable”. Advertisement On Friday, EPA chief environmental regulator Mark Gifford confirmed the contamination was caused by water leaking from the pond and that lead, aluminium, arsenic, barium, boron, nickel and uranium had been detected in an aquifer at levels ”elevated when compared to livestock, irrigation and health guidelines”.

You will now receive updates from Breaking News Alert Breaking News Alert Get the latest news and updates emailed straight to your inbox. By submitting your email you are agreeing to Fairfax Media’s terms and conditions and privacy policy. Mr Gifford said the metals are ”not additives” and occur naturally in the surrounding soil and water.

Dean Sewell ”However, the leaking pond has mobilised the elements and moved them into the aquifer, increasing their concentrations,” he said. Mr Gifford also confirmed uranium levels were detected in an aquifer at micrograms per litre – about 20 times the safe drinking water guideline of 17 micrograms per litre.

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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March A rocker bogie In motion – incorrectly shows chassis staying level; the chassis actually maintains the average of the two rockers Rocker bogie on Curiosity The rocker-bogie system is the suspension arrangement used in the Mars rovers mechanical robot introduced for the Mars Pathfinder and also used on the Mars Exploration Rover MER and Mars Science Laboratory MSL missions.

These rockers are connected to each other and the vehicle chassis through a differential.

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Nitrate from land use activities can leach out of the root zone of the crop into the deeper part of the unsaturated zone and ultimately contaminate the underlying groundwater resources. Nitrate travels with the groundwater and then discharges into surface water causing eutrophication of surface water bodies. To understand the source, fate, and future nitrogen loads to ground and surface water bodies, detailed knowledge of the groundwater flow dynamics is essential.

Groundwater sampled at monitoring wells or discharges may not yet be in equilibrium with current land use intensity due to the time lag between leaching out of the root zone and arrival at the sampling location. Anoxic groundwater zones can act as nitrate sinks through microbial denitrification. However, the effect of denitrification on overall nitrate fluxes depends on the fraction of the groundwater flowing through such zones.

We will show results from volcanic aquifers in the central North Island of New Zealand where age tracers clearly indicate that the groundwater discharges into large sensitive lakes like Lake Taupo and Lake Rotorua are not yet fully realising current land use intensity. The majority of the water discharging into these lakes is decades and up to over hundred years old. Therefore, increases in dairy farming over the last decades are not yet reflected in these old water discharges, but over time these increased nitrate inputs will eventually work their way through the large groundwater systems and increasing N loads to the lakes are to be expected.

Anoxic zones are present in some of these aquifers, indicating some denitrification potential, however, age tracer results from nested piezo wells show young groundwater in oxic zones indicating active flow in these zones, while anoxic zones tend to have older water indicating poorer hydraulic conductivity in these zones. Consequently, to evaluate the effect of denitrification on nitrate fluxes it is insufficient to consider only the spatial distribution of oxic and anoxic zones; the flow through these zones needs to be quantified.

If the majority of groundwater passes through the oxic zones rather the anoxic zones, insignificant N attenuation must be expected. Our results indicate about an order of magnitude lower vertical flow velocity and flux through anoxic zones compared to oxic zones. The age distribution of the groundwater allows identification of groundwater flow path ways, which in the Lake Taupo catchment is characterised by high piston flow, indicating groundwater flow between widely connected impermeable layers, probably paleosol layers.

Source of radiogenic helium 4 in shallow aquifers: Implications for dating young groundwater

Well-known examples include those in Bath, Buxton and Harrogate. Bathing in these waters was popular amongst fashionable society in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as it was considered beneficial to health. The practice continued into the nineteenth century but declined after that in the UK. Thermal springs are a natural phenomenon which occur where hot water from great depths in the Earth rises to the surface.

In the UK, groundwater normally has a temperature around oC and reflects the average annual air temperature. Shallow springs therefore have a similar temperature.

Geochronology – Nonradiometric dating: In addition to radioactive decay, many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a.

Advertisement Over the past several decades, U. No company would be allowed to pour such dangerous chemicals into the rivers or onto the soil. But until recently, scientists and environmental officials have assumed that deep layers of rock beneath the earth would safely entomb the waste for millennia. There are growing signs they were mistaken. Records from disparate corners of the United States show that wells drilled to bury this waste deep beneath the ground have repeatedly leaked, sending dangerous chemicals and waste gurgling to the surface or, on occasion, seeping into shallow aquifers that store a significant portion of the nation’s drinking water.

In , contaminants from such a well bubbled up in a west Los Angeles dog park.

Broken Hill Managed Aquifer Recharge

General characteristics[ edit ] The deposition of aquifer material dates back two to six million years, from the late Miocene to early Pliocene ages when the southern Rocky Mountains were still tectonically active. From the uplands to the west, rivers and streams cut channels in a generally west to east or southeast direction. Erosion of the Rockies provided alluvial and aeolian sediment that filled the ancient channels and eventually covered the entire area of the present-day aquifer, forming the water-bearing Ogallala Formation.

The major differences are time and depth. The depth of the Ogallala varies with the shape of then-prevailing surface, being deepest where it fills ancient valleys and channels. The Ogallala Formation consists mostly of coarse sedimentary rocks in its deeper sections, which transition upward into finer-grained material.

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Chlorofluorocarbon dating of herbicide containing well waters by F. Dubrovsky – in Fresno and Tulare Counties , ” Simaaine, diuron, and bromacil are the most frequently detected currently registered pesticides in California groundwater. Chlorofluorocarbon CFC groundwater age-dating was used in conjunction with onedimensional transport modeling to address this question. The data also suggest that changes in groundwater quality arising from modified management practices will probably not be discernible for at least , Groundwater age, life expectancy and transit time distributions in advective-dispersive systems: Generalized reservoir theory, Adv by F.

Perrochet – Water Resour ” We present a methodology for determining reservoir groundwater age and tran-sit time probability distributions in a deterministic manner, considering advective-dispersive transport in steady velocity fields. In a first step, we propose to model the statistical distribution of groundwater age at aqui