Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias. To keep from making claims that someone could refute later.
Fossils Provide New Clues to Tibetan Plateau’s Evolution
Are Fossils the Result of Noah’s Flood? First note that very few fossils are forming today and then only in the case of rapid burial by water. For instance what happens to a fish when it dies? It either floats to the surface or sinks to the bottom where it decays and is eaten by scavengers.
Mar 01, · Human Origins; Human Evolution Research. Climate and Human Evolution. Climate Effects on Human Evolution; Survival of the Adaptable; East African Research Projects.
Human Evolution Evidence Evidence of Evolution Scientists have discovered a wealth of evidence concerning human evolution , and this evidence comes in many forms. Thousands of human fossils enable researchers and students to study the changes that occurred in brain and body size, locomotion, diet, and other aspects regarding the way of life of early human species over the past 6 million years. Millions of stone tools, figurines and paintings, footprints, and other traces of human behavior in the prehistoric record tell about where and how early humans lived and when certain technological innovations were invented.
Study of human genetics show how closely related we are to other primates — in fact, how connected we are with all other organisms — and can indicate the prehistoric migrations of our species, Homo sapiens, all over the world. Advances in the dating of fossils and artifacts help determine the age of those remains, which contributes to the big picture of when different milestones in becoming human evolved. Exciting scientific discoveries continually add to the broader and deeper public knowledge of human evolution.
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It is an almost complete skull and partial skeleton of an 11 to 12 year old boy. It has a brain size of cc and a height of cm 4’3″ , and is about 1. It was bipedal with long arms suitable for climbing, but had a number of humanlike traits in the skull, teeth and pelvis Stw , “Little Foot”, Australopithecus Discovered by Ron Clarke between and at Sterkfontein in South Africa.
Estimated age is 3. This fossil consists, so far, of many bones from the foot, leg, hand and arm, and a complete skull. More bones are thought to be still embedded in rock.
This list includes fossils that are important for either their scientific or historic interest, or because they are often mentioned by creationists.
These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition. Stromatolites Lower Proterozoic Stromatolites from Bolivia , South America Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria. While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae.
One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia. The earliest stromatolite of confirmed microbial origin dates to 2. The most widely supported explanation is that stromatolite builders fell victims to grazing creatures the Cambrian substrate revolution , implying that sufficiently complex organisms were common over 1 billion years ago. Factors such as the chemistry of the environment may have been responsible for changes.
Cyanobacteria as well as extremophile Gammaproteobacteria are thought to be largely responsible for increasing the amount of oxygen in the primeval earth’s atmosphere through their continuing photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria use water , carbon dioxide and sunlight to create their food. A layer of mucus often forms over mats of cyanobacterial cells.
In modern microbial mats, debris from the surrounding habitat can become trapped within the mucus, which can be cemented by the calcium carbonate to grow thin laminations of limestone.
Human Family Tree
Updated 8 January c Introduction In a related article on geologic ages Ages , we presented a chart with the various geologic eras and their ages. In a separate article Radiometric dating , we sketched in some technical detail how these dates are calculated using radiometric dating techniques. As we pointed out in these two articles, radiometric dates are based on known rates of radioactivity, a phenomenon that is rooted in fundamental laws of physics and follows simple mathematical formulas.
Ancient Fossil Bacteria: Pictured above are two kinds cyanobacteria from the Bitter Springs chert of central Australia, a site dating to the Late Proterozoic, about million years old. On the left is a colonial chroococcalean form, and on the right is the filamentous Palaeolyngbya.
June 28, from Answers in Depth Animals can show up in the oddest places and make evolutionists scratch their heads as is the case with the newly discovered monkey fossils. Book Chapter March 28, from Creation: Facts of Life Can changes from molecules-to-man macroevolution be explained by extrapolated from the process of mutation-selection microevolution? June 22, from Answers in Depth Evolutionists have come to largely accept the fact that soft tissues can be preserved in fossils for an extraordinarily long time.
But millions of years. Magazine Department Article April 1, from Answers Magazine The fossil of a creature resembling a groundhog that lived during the time of dinosaurs has become an anomaly for evolutionists. Magazine Department Article April 1, from Answers Magazine Cartorhynchus lenticarpus, whose discovery was hailed last November, is being hailed as an evolutionary link, but this characterization is premature.
Evolutionists want to know. April 14, from News to Know Orphan eggs in Cretaceous Spain offer ambiguous clues to their missing parents. June 25, from News to Know Algae to bones. Oldest Found Remains of Animals Aug. Book Chapter July 31, from Wonders of Geology Dinosaur National Monument houses one of the largest on-location dinosaur fossil displays in the entire world.
Prominent Hominid Fossils
From Nature magazine Palaeontologists working in Tanzania have discovered the oldest known fossils from two major primate groups — Old World monkeys, which include baboons and macaques, and apes, which include humans and chimpanzees. The study, published online today in Nature, reveals new information about primate evolution. A team led by Nancy Stevens, a palaeontologist at Ohio University in Athens, recovered a lone tooth and a jaw fragment with three teeth from a site in the Rukwa Rift Basin in southwestern Tanzania.
acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large.
Earliest known Homo sapiens fossils discovered This is , years older than previously discovered fossils of Homo sapiens that have been securely dated. The discovery was presented in a study in the journal Nature on Wednesday. This marks the first discovery of such fossils in north Africa, and widens the “cradle of mankind” to encompass all of Africa, the researchers said. Previous finds were in south or east Africa. The fossils, including a partial skull and a lower jaw, belong to five different individuals including three young adults, an adolescent and a child estimated to be 8 years old.
Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale
Dating Here of some of the well-tested methods of dating used in the study of early humans: Potassium-argon dating, Argon-argon dating, Carbon or Radiocarbon , and Uranium series. All of these methods measure the amount of radioactive decay of chemical elements; the decay occurs in a consistent manner, like a clock, over long periods of time. Thermo-luminescence, Optically stimulated luminescence, and Electron spin resonance. All of these methods measure the amount of electrons that get absorbed and trapped inside a rock or tooth over time.
Fossil Record The cyanobacteria have an extensive fossil record. The oldest known fossils, in fact, are cyanobacteria from Archaean rocks of western Australia, dated 3. This may be somewhat surprising, since the oldest rocks are only a little older: Cyanobacteria are among the easiest microfossils to recognize. Morphologies in the group have remained much the same for billions of years, and they may leave chemical fossils behind as well, in the form of breakdown products from pigments.
Small fossilized cyanobacteria have been extracted from Precambrian rock, and studied through the use of SEM and TEM scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pictured above are two kinds cyanobacteria from the Bitter Springs chert of central Australia, a site dating to the Late Proterozoic, about million years old. On the left is a colonial chroococcalean form, and on the right is the filamentous Palaeolyngbya.
Many Proterozoic oil deposits are attributed to the activity of cyanobacteria, such as Gloeocapsomorpha. Small concentrically layered structures called pisolites are also the result of fossilized bacteria.
Some paleoanthropologists lump Paranthropus robustus and other paranthropoids into the genus Australopithecus. They consider them to be a physically robust subgroup of australopithecines. Following that excavation, he dedicated the rest of his life to writing everything known about all of the early hominins.
Over the past 20 years, paleontologists have made tremendous fossil discoveries, including fossils that mark the growth of whales, manatees, and seals from land mammals and the origins of elephants, horses, and rhinos.
A fossil skeleton of a woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis , an extinct species that once roamed the Eurasian continent. Cartier 12 December Called the Rooftop of the World, the Tibetan Plateau perches high above the surrounding terrain, surpassed only by the Himalayan mountains that mark its southern border. But when and how the plateau reached its high elevation has remained unclear. For one scientist and his team, tracing the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau now has a much-needed clue: This early uplift time frame agrees well with most isotopic records.
Fossils as a Window into Uplift History The Tibetan Plateau , the youngest and highest in the world, rises approximately 5, meters above sea level, nearly one third of the way to the tropopause. Its height and location shape atmospheric flow and climate in the region. At present, the Tibetan Plateau supports a diverse range of ecosystems , including deserts, forests, and tundra, all adapted to its high-altitude environment. Modern topographical map of the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding region showing areas of low green to high red and white elevation.
To test this, Deng and his team examined newly excavated as well as archived fossils of ancient fish and mammals from the plateau that date to the late Oligocene 34—23 million years ago Ma through the mid-Miocene 23—5. They analyzed fossils of rodents, fish, Tibetan woolly rhinoceroses, shovel-tusked elephants, and ancestral relatives of arctic foxes, snow leopards, and bighorn sheep.
Accuracy of Fossils and Dating Methods
A former barite mine located some 62 miles west of the city of Marrakesh, it has been a place of ongoing excavations. It sits at an altitude of 1, feet. His finding eventually reached the University of Rabat, and an expedition followed. A map of Morocco, showing the location of Marrakesh.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, “obtained by digging”) is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological es include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, objects preserved in amber, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record.
Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany. At least three individuals are represented in the skeletal sample. Radiocarbon dates for Neandertal 1, from which a mtDNA sequence was determined in , and a second individual indicate an age of 40, yr for both. Computers have brought new life to fossil studies. Instead of just examining bones, researchers now digitize them, then fill in missing pieces, add flesh, and simulate gait and other features.
This tutorial describes work using computer-assisted paleoanthropology to study Neandertals. Fossils are put through a computed tomography scan, reconstructed in 3D, then compared with modern humans. This photo is from one of many extremely interesting and thought provoking graphics at this website. Two New Neanderthals Turn Up: Palaeontologists strike gold in nineteenth-century rubbish.